Title: URL Standard
Group: WebSpecs
H1: URL
Shortname: url
Status: LS
No Editor: true
Abstract: The URL Standard defines URLs, domains, IP addresses, the application/x-www-form-urlencoded format, and their APIs.
Indent: 2


## Goals

The URL standard takes the following approach towards making URLs fully interoperable:

• Align RFC 3986 and RFC 3987 with contemporary implementations and obsolete them in the process. (E.g. spaces, other "illegal" code points, query encoding, equality, canonicalization, are all concepts not entirely shared, or defined.) URL parsing needs to become as solid as HTML parsing. [[RFC3986]] [[RFC3987]]

• Standardize on the term URL. URI and IRI are just confusing. In practice a single algorithm is used for both so keeping them distinct is not helping anyone. URL also easily wins the search result popularity contest.

• Supplanting Origin of a URI [sic]. [[RFC6454]]

• Define URL's existing JavaScript API in full detail and add enhancements to make it easier to work with. Add a new URL object as well for URL manipulation without usage of HTML elements. (Useful for JavaScript worker environments.)

## URLs

A URL is a universal identifier.

A URL consists of components, namely a scheme, scheme data, username, password, host, port, path, query, and fragment.

http://username:password@example.com:8000/path?query#fragment contains values for all URL components except scheme data.

javascript:doSomething() contains values for only scheme and scheme data.

A URL's scheme is a string that identifies the type of URL and can be used to dispatch a URL for further processing after parsing. It is initially null.

A URL's scheme data is a string holding the contents of a URL. It is initially null.

A URL's scheme data will be null if its initial scheme is a relative scheme, and otherwise will be the only component other than scheme that differs from its initial value.

A URL's username is a string identifying a user. It is initially the empty string.

A URL's password is either null or a string identifying a user's credentials. It is initially null.

A URL's host is either null or a host. It is initially null.

A URL's port is a string that identifies a networking port. It is initially the empty string.

A URL's path is a list of zero or more strings holding data, usually identifying a location in hierarchical form. It is initially the empty list.

A URL's query is either null or a string holding data. It is initially null.

A URL's fragment is either null or a string holding data that can be used for further processing on the resource the URL's other components identify. It is initially null.

A URL also has an associated object that is either null or a Blob. It is initially null. [[!FILEAPI]]

At this point this is used primarily to support "blob" URLs, but others can be added going forward, hence "object".

A relative scheme is a scheme listed in the first column of the following table. A default port is a relative scheme's optional corresponding port and is listed in the second column on the same row.
scheme port
"ftp""21"
"file"
"gopher""70"
"http""80"
"https""443"
"ws""80"
"wss""443"

A URL includes credentials if either its username is not the empty string or its password is non-null.

A URL can be designated as base URL.

A base URL is useful for the URL parser when the input is potentially a relative URL.

### Authoring Requirements

Two types of parse errors are defined. Parse exceptions terminate parsing and must be implemented by all conforming implementations. By contrast, user agents are encouraged, but not required, to expose conformance errors somehow. If parsing a given input results in the detection of multiple conformance errors, user agents may chose to only report a subset of the errors detected.

A URL must be written as either a relative URL or an absolute URL, optionally followed by "#" and a fragment.

An absolute URL must be a scheme, followed by ":", followed by either a scheme-relative URL, if scheme is a relative scheme, or scheme data otherwise, optionally followed by "?" and a query.

A scheme must be one ASCII alpha, followed by zero or more of ASCII alphanumeric, "+", "-", and ".". A scheme must be registered ....

The syntax of scheme data depends on the scheme and is typically defined alongside it. Standards must define scheme data within the constraints of zero or more URL units, excluding "?".

A relative URL must be either a scheme-relative URL, an absolute-path-relative URL, or a path-relative URL that does not start with a scheme and ":", optionally followed by a "?" and a query.

At the point where a relative URL is parsed, a base URL must be in scope.

A scheme-relative URL must be "//", optionally followed by userinfo and "@", followed by a host, optionally followed by ":" and a port, optionally followed by an absolute-path-relative URL.

Userinfo must be a username, optionally followed by a ":" and a password.

A username must be zero or more URL units, excluding "/", ":, "?", and "@".

A password must be zero or more URL units, excluding "/", "?", and "@".

A host must be either a domain, or an IPv4 address, or "[" followed by an IPv6 address followed by "]".

A domain must be a string that is a valid domain.

Textual representation of IPv4 address does not appear to be defined by an RFC. See Textual Representation of IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses for some history.

An IPv6 address is defined in the "Text Representation of Addresses" chapter of IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture. [[!RFC4291]]

A port must be zero or more ASCII digits.

An absolute-path-relative URL must be "/", followed by a path-relative URL that does not start with "/".

A path-relative URL must be zero or more path segments separated from each other by a "/".

A path segment must be zero or more URL units, excluding "/" and "?".

A query must be zero or more URL units.

A fragment must be zero or more URL units.

The URL code points are ASCII alphanumeric, "!", "\$", "&", "'", "(", ")", "*", "+", ",", "-", ".", "/", ":", ";", "=", "?", "@", "_", "~", and code points in the ranges U+00A0 to U+D7FF, U+E000 to U+FDCF, U+FDF0 to U+FFFD, U+10000 to U+1FFFD, U+20000 to U+2FFFD, U+30000 to U+3FFFD, U+40000 to U+4FFFD, U+50000 to U+5FFFD, U+60000 to U+6FFFD, U+70000 to U+7FFFD, U+80000 to U+8FFFD, U+90000 to U+9FFFD, U+A0000 to U+AFFFD, U+B0000 to U+BFFFD, U+C0000 to U+CFFFD, U+D0000 to U+DFFFD, U+E0000 to U+EFFFD, U+F0000 to U+FFFFD, U+100000 to U+10FFFD.

Code points higher than U+009F will be converted to percent-encoded bytes by the URL parser, except for code points appearing in fragments.

The URL units are URL code points and percent-encoded bytes.

### Parsers

The URL parser takes a string input, optionally with a base URL base, and optionally with an encoding encoding override, and then runs these steps:

1. Let url be the result of running the basic URL parser on input with base, and encoding override as provided.

2. If url is failure, return failure.

3. If url's scheme is not "blob", return url.

4. If url's scheme data is not in the blob URL store, return url. [[!FILEAPI]]

5. Set url's object to a structured clone of the entry in the blob URL store corresponding to url's scheme data. [[!HTML]]

6. Return url.

The basic URL parser takes a string input, optionally with a base URL base, optionally with an encoding encoding override, optionally with an URL url and a state override state override, and then runs these steps:

The encoding override argument is a legacy concept only relevant for HTML. The url and state override arguments are only for use by methods of objects implementing the URLUtils interface. [[!HTML]]

When the url and state override arguments are not passed the basic URL parser returns either a URL or failure. If they are passed the algorithm simply modifies the passed url and can terminate without returning anything.

1. If url is not given:

1. Set url to a new URL.

2. Remove any leading and trailing ASCII whitespace from input.

2. If base is not given, set it a new URL with scheme set to about.

3. If encoding override is not given, set it to utf-8.

4. Invoke url on the input passing url, base and encoding override.
5. Return url.

Parsing Rules {#parsing-rules} --- These railroad diagrams, as modified by the accompanying text, define grammar production rules for URLs. They are to be evaluated sequentially, first left-to-right then top-to-bottom, backtracking as necessary, until a complete match against the input provided is found. Each rule defines a function that can be invoked individually. Rules can invoke one another. Parsing a given input according to a railroad diagram produces a number of intermediate values that can be referenced individually as local variables within the function. The names of those local variables isn't specified by this specification, instead the names used in the railroad diagrams are referenced. If a given input doesn't match the railroad diagram, failure is returned instead. If failure is returned by an alternative, evaluation continues with the next alternative. The following conventions are used in descriptions of parsing logic for clarity and conciseness: * The phrase "x is present" is to be interpreted to mean "the grammar rule for x matches some part of the input when that input is parsed according to the given railroad diagram". Note that if the railroad diagram contains alternatives where multiple alternatives could potentially match the input, only the first matching input is considered to be present. * The phrase "value of x" is to be interpreted to mean "the value returned by the function x(input) when the function x is passed some part of the original input during the parsing of that original input according to the given railroad diagram". Note: extracting the railroad diagrams from this specification and interpreting them in isolation will produce incorrect results. In particular, the definitions provided in the prose modifies these parsing algorithms in important ways including returning failure and early termination.

#### url(input)

returns: { scheme, scheme-data, username, password, host, port, path, query, fragment }
Sequence:
Choice:
N: file-url
N: non-relative-url
N: relative-url
Optional:
Sequence:
T: ?
N: query
Optional:
Sequence:
T: #
N: fragment

1. Parse input according to the above railroad diagram.
2. Let result be the value of file-url, non-relative-url, or relative-url depending on which is present.
3. If query is present, set result.query to the value of query.
4. If fragment is present, set result.fragment to the value of fragment.
5. If result.scheme has a default port, and if result.port is equal to that default, then delete the port property from result.
6. Return result.

#### file-url(input)

returns: { scheme, host, path }
Choice:
Sequence:
T: file
T: :
T: any of [a-zA-Z]
Choice:
T: :
T: |
Optional:
Choice:
T: \
T: /
N: path
Sequence:
ZeroOrMore:
T: /
T: any of [a-zA-Z]
T: |
Optional:
T: /
N: path
Sequence:
T: file
T: :
Optional:
Sequence:
T: /
T: /
N: host
ZeroOrMore:
T: /
N: path

"file" is to be matched case insensitively.
1. Parse input according to the above railroad diagram.
2. Let result be an empty object.
3. Three rows of production rules are defined for files, numbered from top to bottom. Examples and evaluation instructions for each:
1. file:c:\foo\bar.html
1. Set result.scheme to "file".
2. Set result.path to the value of path.
3. Remove the first element from result.path if it is an empty string and if there is a second element which has a non-empty value.
4. Construct a string using the ASCII alpha following the first ":" in the input concatenated with a ":". Prepend this string to result.path.
2. /C|\foo\bar
1. Set result.scheme to "file".
2. If the host is present, set result.host to the value of host.
3. If the host is not present and no slashes precede the path in the input, then prepend base.path minus the last element to the result.path.
4. Set result.path to the value of path.
3. file:/example.com/
1. Indicate a conformance error.
2. Set result.scheme to "file".
3. Set result.path to the value of path.
4. Remove the first element from result.path if it is an empty string and if there is a second element which has a non-empty value.
5. Construct a string consisting of the code point following the initial "/" (if any) in the production rule concatenated with a ":". Prepend this string to the result.path array.
4. Return result.

At the present time, file URLs are generally not interoperable, and therefore are effectively implementation defined. Furthermore, the parsing rules in this section have not enjoyed wide review, and therefore are more likely to be subject to change than other parts of this specification. bug 27518 proposes to remove all normative definitions for file URLs that are not known to be interoperable. Bug 23550 and bug 23717 suggest less drastic changes.

#### non-relative-url(input)

returns: { scheme, scheme-data }
Sequence:
N: scheme
T: :
N: scheme-data

javascript:alert("Hello, world!");
1. Parse input according to the above railroad diagram.
2. If the value of scheme does not match any relative scheme then return failure.
3. Set encoding override to "utf-8".
4. Initialize result to be a JSON object with scheme set to be the result returned by scheme, and schemeData set to the value of scheme-data.
5. Return result.

The resolution of bug 26338 may change how encoding override is handled.

The resolution of bug 27233 may add support for relative URLs for unknown schemes.

#### relative-url(input)

Choice:
Sequence:
Optional:
Sequence:
N: non-file-relative-scheme
T: :
Choice:
T: /
T: \
Choice:
T: /
T: \
N: authority
Optional:
Sequence:
Choice:
T: /
T: \
N: path
Sequence:
N: non-file-relative-scheme
T: :
Optional:
Choice:
T: \
T: /
N: authority
Optional:
Sequence:
Choice:
T: /
T: \
N: path
Sequence:
N: non-file-relative-scheme
T: :
N: path
N: path

1. Parse input according to the above railroad diagram.
2. Four rows of production rules are defined for relative URLs, numbered from top to bottom. Examples and evaluation instructions for each:
1. http://user:pass@example.org:21/foo/bar
1. If anything other than two forward solidus code points ("//") immediately follows the first colon in the input, indicate a conformance error.
2. Let result be the value of authority.
3. If non-file-relative-scheme is present in the input, then set result.scheme to the value of non-file-relative-scheme.
4. If non-file-relative-scheme is not present, then set result.scheme to the value of base.scheme.
5. If path is present, set result.path to the value of path.
2. ftp:/example.com/ parsed using a base of http://example.org/foo/bar
1. If the value of scheme equals base.scheme then return failure.
2. Indicate a conformance error.
3. Let result be the value of authority.
4. Set result.scheme to the value of non-file-relative-scheme.
5. If result.host is either an empty string or contains a colon, then terminate parsing with a parse exception.
6. If path is present, set result.path to the value of path.
3. http:foo/bar
1. Indicate a conformance error.
2. Let result be an empty object.
3. Set result.scheme to the value of non-file-relative-scheme.
4. Set result.scheme to the value of scheme.
5. Set result.host to base.host.
6. Set result.path by the path concatenation of base.path and path.
4. /foo/bar
1. Let result be an empty object.
2. Set result.scheme to base.scheme.
3. Set result.host to base.host.
4. Set result.path to path
5. Replace result.path with the path concatenation of base.path and result.Path.
3. Return result.

#### non-file-relative-scheme(input)

returns: String
Choice:
T: ftp
T: gopher
T: https
T: http
T: wss
T: ws

Schemes are to be matched against the input in a case insensitive manner.
1. Parse input according to the above railroad diagram.
2. Set encoding override to "utf-8" if the scheme matches "wss" or "ws".
3. Return the scheme as a lowercased string.

The resolution of bug 26338 may change how encoding override is handled.

#### scheme(input)

returns: String
Sequence:
T: any of [a-zA-Z]
ZeroOrMore:
T: any of [-a-zA-Z+.]

A scheme consists of an ASCII alpha, followed by zero or more ASCII alpha or any of the following code points: hyphen-minus (U+002D), plus sign (U+002B) or full stop (U+002D). Return the results as a lowercased string.

#### authority(input)

Sequence:
Optional:
Sequence:
N: user
Optional:
Sequence:
T: :
T: @
N: host
Optional:
Sequence:
T: :
N: port

1. Parse input according to the above railroad diagram.
2. Let result be an empty object.
3. If user is present, set result.username to the value of user.
4. If password is present, set result.password to the value of password.
5. Set result.host to the value of host up to the first "@" sign, if any. If no "@" signs are present in the value of host, then set result.host to the value of host.
6. If one or more "@" signs are present in the value of host, then perform the following steps:
1. Indicate a conformance error.
2. Initialize info to the value of "%40" plus the remainder of the host after the first "@" sign. Replace all remaining "@" signs in info, with the string "%40".
3. If password is present, append info to result.password.
4. If password is not present and user is present, append info to result.username.
5. If user is not present, set result.username to info.
7. If port is present, set result.port to its value.
8. Return result.

#### user(input)

returns: String
ZeroOrMore:
T: any except [/\?#@:]

Consume all code points until either a solidus (U+002F), a reverse solidus (U+005C), a question mark (U+003F), a number sign (U+0023), a commercial at (U+0040), a colon (U+003A), or the end of string is encountered. Return the cleansed result using the default encode set.

returns: String
ZeroOrMore:
T: any except [/\?#@]

Consume all code points until either a solidus (U+002F), a reverse solidus (U+005C), a question mark (U+003F), a number sign (U+0023), a commercial at (U+0040), or the end of string is encountered. Return the cleansed result using the default encode set.

#### host(input)

returns: String
Choice:
Sequence:
Sequence:
ZeroOrMore:
T: any except [:/\?#]

1. Parse input according to the above railroad diagram.
2. If ipv6addr is present, return the value of ipv6addr.
3. If ipv4addr is present, return the value of ipv4addr.
4. Let result be the characters matched by the railroad diagram.
5. If any U+0009, U+000A, U+000D, U+200B, U+2060, or U+FEFF code points are present in result, remove those code points and indicate a conformance error.
6. Let domain be the result of host parsing result. If this results in a failure, terminate processing with a parse exception. If host parsing returned a value that was different than what was provided as input, indicate a conformance error.
7. Try parsing domain as an ipv4addr. If this succeeds, replace domain with the result.
8. Validate domain as follows:
1. split the string at U+002E (full stop) code points
2. If any of the pieces, other than the first one, are empty strings, indicate a conformance error.
9. Return domain.

The resolution of bug 25334 may change what codepoints are allowed in a domain.

The resolution of bug 27266 may change the way domain names and trailing dots are handled.

returns: String
Sequence:
T: [
Sequence:
Optional:
Sequence:
ZeroOrMore:
Sequence:
N: h16
T: :
T: :
ZeroOrMore:
Sequence:
N: h16
T: :
Choice:
N: h16
N: ls32
T: ]

1. Let pre be the set of h16 values before the double colon, if present.
2. Let post be the remaining h16 value before the last value
3. Let last be the trailing h16 or ls32 value.
4. If there are no consecutive colon code points in the input string, indicate a parse exception and terminate processing unless there are exactly six h16 values and one ls32 value.
5. If there are consecutive colon code points present in the input, indicate a parse exception and terminate processing if the total number of values (h16 or ls32) is more than six.
6. Unless there is a ls32 value present, indicate a parse exception and terminate processing if consecutive colon code points are present in the input or if there are more than one ls32 value after the consecutive colons.
7. Append "0" values to pre while the sum of the lengths of the pre and post arrays is less than six.
8. Append a "0" value to pre if no ls32 item is present in the input and the sum of the lengths of the pre and post array is seven.
9. Append last to pre.
10. Return '[' plus the ipv6 serialized value of pre as a string, plus ']'.

The resolution of bug 27234 may add support for link-local addresses.

returns: String
Sequence:
Optional:
Sequence:
N: number
T: .
Optional:
Sequence:
N: number
T: .
Optional:
Sequence:
N: number
T: .
N: number

1. If any but the last number is greater or equal to 256, terminate processing with a parse exception.
2. If the last number is greater than or equal to 256 to the power of (5 minus the number of numbers present in the input), terminate processing with a parse exception.
3. Unless four numbers are present, indicate a conformance error.
4. Let n be the last number.
5. If the first number is present, add it's value times 256**3 to n.
6. If the second number is present, add it's value times 256**2 to n.
7. If the third number is present, add it's value times 256 to n.
8. Let result be an empty array.
9. Four times do the following:
1. Prepend the value of n modulo 256 to result.
2. Set n to the value of the integer quotient of n divided by 256.
10. Join the values in result with a Full Stop (U+002E) code point, and return the results as a string.

The resolution of bug 26431 may change this definition.

#### number(input)

returns: Integer
Choice:
Sequence:
T: 0
Choice:
T: x
T: X
OneOrMore:
T: any of [0-9a-fA-F]
Sequence:
T: 0
OneOrMore:
T: any of [0-7]
OneOrMore:
T: any of [0-9]

Three production rules, with uppercase and lowercase variants, are defined for numbers. Parse the values as hexadecimal, octal, and decimal integers respectively. Indicate a conformance error if the value is hexadecimal or octal. Return the result as an integer.

#### h16(input)

returns: String
Sequence:
T: any of [0-9A-Fa-f]
Optional:
T: any of [0-9A-Fa-f]
Optional:
T: any of [0-9A-Fa-f]
Optional:
T: any of [0-9A-Fa-f]

Return up to four ASCII hex digits as a string.

#### ls32(input)

returns: String
Sequence:
N: decimal-byte
T: .
N: decimal-byte
T: .
N: decimal-byte
T: .
N: decimal-byte

Return four decimal 8-bit pieces separated by full stop code points as a string.

#### decimal-byte(input)

returns: String
Sequence:
Optional:
T: any of [0-2]
Optional:
T: any of [0-9]
T: any of [0-9]

Decimal bytes are a string of up to three decimal digits. If the results converted to an integer are greater than 255, terminate processing with a parse exception.

#### port(input)

returns: String
ZeroOrMore:
T: any except [/\?#]

1. Consume all code points until either a solidus (U+002F), a reverse solidus (U+005C), a question mark (U+003F), or the end of string is encountered.
2. Let result be the cleansed set of code points using null as the encode set.
3. Remove leading U+0030 code points from result until either the leading code point is not U+0030 or result consists of exactly one code point.
4. If any code points in result are not ASCII digits:
1. If input was not set, terminate processing with a parse exception.
2. Truncate result starting with the first non-digit code point.
3. Indicate a conformance error.
5. Return the result as a string.

The resolution of bug 26446 may change port from a string to a number.

#### path(input)

returns: Array of Strings
Sequence:
ZeroOrMore:
Sequence:
ZeroOrMore:
T: any except [/\?#]
Choice:
T: /
T: \
ZeroOrMore:
T: any except [/\?#]

1. If any of the path separators are a reverse solidus ("\"), indicate a conformance error.
2. Extract all the pathnames into an array. Process each name as follows:
1. Cleanse the name using the default encode set as the encode set.
2. If the name is "." or "%2e" (case insensitive), then process this name based on the position in the array:
1. If the position is other than the last, remove the name from the list.
2. If the array is of length 1, replace the entry with an empty string.
3. Otherwise, leave the entry as is.
3. If the name is "..", ".%2e", "%2e.", or "%2e%2e" (all to be compared in a case insensitive manner), then process this name based on the position in the array:
1. If the position is the first, then remove it.
2. If the position is other than the last, then remove it and the one before it.
3. If the position is the last, then remove it and the one before it, then append an empty string.
4. Return the array.

The resolution of bug 24163 may change what code points to escape in the path.

#### scheme-data(input)

returns: String
ZeroOrMore:
T: any except [?#]

Consume all code points until either a question mark (U+003F), a number sign (U+0023), or the end of string is encountered. Return the cleansed result using null as the encode set.

The resolution of bug 24246 may change what code points to escape in the scheme data.

#### query(input)

returns: String
ZeroOrMore:
T: any except [#]

Consume all code points until either a number sign (U+0023) or the end of string is encountered. Return the cleansed result using the the result using the query encode set.

The resolution of bug 27280 may change how code points < 0x20 are handled.

#### fragment(input)

returns: String
ZeroOrMore:
T: any

1. Let result be the remaining code points in the input.
2. If any U+0000 characters are present in result, remove those characters from result and indicate a conformance error.
3. If any characters in result are neither a Percent Sign (U+0025) nor a URL code point, indicate a conformance error.
4. Return the cleansed result using null as the encode set.

Unfortunately not using percent-encoding is intentional as implementations with majority market share exhibit this behavior.

The resolution of bug 26988 may add support for parsing URLs without decoding the fragment identifier. Setter Rules {#setter-rules} --- URLUtils and URLUtilsReadOnly members invoke the following setter rules with url set to a non-null value.

#### set-protocol(input)

Sequence:
N: scheme
Optional:
T: :
ZeroOrMore:
T: any

Set url.scheme to value returned by scheme.

ZeroOrMore:
T: any

If url.scheme_data is not null, return. Set url.username to the percent encoded value using the username encode set.

ZeroOrMore:
T: any

If url.scheme_data is not null, return. Set url.password to the percent encoded value using the password encode set.

#### set-host(input)

Sequence:
N: host
Optional:
Sequence:
T: :
N: port
Optional:
Sequence:
Optional:
T: any of [/\?#]
ZeroOrMore:
T: any

If url.scheme_data is not null, return. Set url.host to the value returned by host. If port is present, set result.port to its value.

#### set-hostname(input)

Sequence:
N: host
Optional:
T: any of [:/\?#]
ZeroOrMore:
T: any

If url.scheme_data is not null, return. Set url.host to the value returned by host.

#### set-port(input)

Sequence:
N: port
Optional:
T: any of [/\?#]
ZeroOrMore:
T: any

If url.scheme_data is not null or url.scheme is "file", return. If url.scheme has a default port, and if port is equal to that default, then set the port property of url to the empty string. Otherwise, set url.port to the value returned by port.

#### set-pathname(input)

Sequence:
Optional:
Choice:
T: /
T: \
N: path
Optional:
T: any of [/\?#]
ZeroOrMore:
T: any

If url.scheme_data is not null, return. Set url.path to the value returned by path.
Sequence:
Optional:
T: ?
ZeroOrMore:
T: any

Set url.query to the percent encoded value after the initial question mark (U+003F), if any, using the query encode set.

#### set-hash(input)

Sequence:
Optional:
T: #
ZeroOrMore:
T: any

Set url.fragment to the percent encoded value after the initial number sign (U+0023), if any, using the simple encode set Common Functions {#common-functions} ---

To percent encode a byte into a percent-encoded byte, return a string consisting of "%", followed by a double-digit, uppercase, hexadecimal representation of byte.

To percent decode a byte sequence input, run these steps:

Using anything but a utf-8 decoder when the input contains bytes outside the range 0x00 to 0x7F might be insecure and is not recommended.

1. Let output be an empty byte sequence.

2. For each byte byte in input, run these steps:

1. If byte is not %, append byte to output.

2. Otherwise, if byte is % and the next two bytes after byte in input are not in the ranges 0x30 to 0x39, 0x41 to 0x46, and 0x61 to 0x66, append byte to output.

3. Otherwise, run these substeps:

1. Let bytePoint be the two bytes after byte in input, decoded, and then interpreted as hexadecimal number.

2. Append a byte whose value is bytePoint to output.

3. Skip the next two bytes in input.

3. Return output.

To utf-8 percent encode a code point, using an encode set, run these steps:

1. If code point is not in encode set, return code point.

2. Let bytes be the result of running utf-8 encode on code point.

3. Percent encode each byte in bytes, and then return them concatenated, in the same order.

The domain to ASCII function given a domain domain, runs these steps:

1. Let result be the result of running Unicode ToASCII with domain_name set to domain, UseSTD3ASCIIRules set to false, processing_option set to Transitional_Processing, and VerifyDnsLength set to false.

2. If result is a failure value, return failure.

3. Return result.

The domain to Unicode function given a domain domain, runs these steps:

1. Let result be the result of running Unicode ToUnicode with domain_name set to domain, UseSTD3ASCIIRules set to false.

2. Return result, ignoring any returned errors.

A domain is a valid domain if these steps return success:

1. Let result be the result of running Unicode ToASCII with domain_name set to domain, UseSTD3ASCIIRules set to true, processing_option set to Nontransitional_Processing, and VerifyDnsLength set to true.

2. If result is a failure value, return failure.

3. Set result to the result of running Unicode ToUnicode with domain_name set to result, UseSTD3ASCIIRules set to true.

4. If result contains any errors, return failure.

5. Return success.

Ideally we define this in terms of a sequence of code points that make up a valid domain rather than through a whack-a-mole: bug 25334.

The host parser takes a string input and then runs these steps:

1. If input is the empty string, return failure.

2. Let domain be the result of utf-8 decode without BOM on the percent decoding of utf-8 encode on input.

3. Let asciiDomain be the result of running domain to ASCII on domain.

4. If asciiDomain is failure, return failure.

5. If asciiDomain contains one of U+0000, U+0009, U+000A, U+000D, U+0020, "#", "%", "/", ":", "?", "@", "[", "\", and "]", return failure.

6. Return asciiDomain.

To cleanse a string given an encode set, run these steps:
1. If any character in the string not a URL code point or a percent sign (U+0025), indicate a conformance error.
2. If the name includes a percent sign (U+0025) that is not immediately followed by two hexadecimal characters, indicate a conformance error.
3. If any U+0009, U+000A or U+000D characters are present in the string, remove those characters and indicate a conformance error.
4. if the encode set is non-null, first encode the result using the encoding override, then percent encode that result using the provided encode set.
5. Return the result as a string.
To do path concatenation given a base array of path names, and a path array of names, run the following steps:
1. If base is null, set base to an empty array. Otherwise make a local copy of the base array.
2. If the first element on path is ".", remove this first element from path as well as the last element (if any) of base.
3. If path.length is one, and the first and only element on the path is an empty string, set path to the value of base.
4. Otherwise if path.length is greater than one, and the first element on the path is the empty string, remove the first element from the path.
5. Otherwise, remove the last element (if any) of base and then prepend the values of the base array to the path array.

### Serializers

The URL serializer takes a URL url, optionally an exclude fragment flag, and then runs these steps:

1. Let output be url's scheme and ":" concatenated.

2. If url's scheme data is unset:

1. Append "//" to output.

2. If url's username is not the empty string or url's password is non-null, run these substeps:

1. Append url's username to output.

2. If url's password is non-null, append ":" concatenated with url's password to output.

3. Append "@" to output.

3. Append url's host, serialized, to output.

4. If url's port is not the empty string, append ":" concatenated with url's port to output.

5. Append "/" concatenated with the strings in url's path (including empty strings), separated from each other by "/" to output.

3. Otherwise, append url's scheme data to output.

4. If url's query is non-null, append "?" concatenated with url's query to output.

5. If the exclude fragment flag is unset and url's fragment is non-null, append "#" concatenated with url's fragment to output.

6. Return output.

The host serializer takes null or a host host and then runs these steps:

1. If host is null, return the empty string.

2. If host is an IPv6 address, return "[", followed by the result of running the IPv6 serializer on host, followed by "]".

3. Otherwise, host is a domain or an IPv4 address, return host.

The IPv6 serializer takes an IPv6 address address and then runs these steps:

1. Let output be the empty string.

2. Let compress pointer be a pointer to the first 16-bit piece in the first longest sequences of address's 16-bit pieces that are 0.

In 0:f:0:0:f:f:0:0 it would point to the second 0.

3. If there is no sequence of address's 16-bit pieces that are 0 longer than one, set compress pointer to null.

4. For each piece in address's pieces, run these substeps:

1. If compress pointer points to piece, append "::" to output if piece is address's first piece and append ":" otherwise, and then run these substeps again with all subsequent pieces in address's pieces that are 0 skipped or go the next step in the overall set of steps if that leaves no pieces.

2. Append piece, represented as the shortest possible lowercase hexadecimal number, to output.

3. If piece is not address's last piece, append ":" to output.

5. Return output.

This algorithm requires the recommendation from A Recommendation for IPv6 Address Text Representation. [[RFC5952]]

### Origin

See origin's definition in HTML for the necessary background information. [[!HTML]]

A URL's origin is the origin returned by running these steps, switching on URL's scheme:

"blob"

Let url be the result of parsing URL's scheme data.

If url is failure, return a new globally unique identifier. Otherwise, return url's origin.

The origin of blob:https://whatwg.org/d0360e2f-caee-469f-9a2f-87d5b0456f6f is the tuple (https, whatwg.org, 443).

"ftp"
"gopher"
"http"
"https"
"ws"
"wss"

Return a tuple consisting of URL's scheme, its host, and its default port if its port is the empty string, and its port otherwise.

"file"

Unfortunate as it is, this is left as an exercise to the reader. When in doubt, return a new globally unique identifier.

Otherwise

Return a new globally unique identifier.

## APIs

[Constructor(USVString url, optional USVString base = "about:blank"),
Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface URL {
static USVString domainToASCII(USVString domain);
static USVString domainToUnicode(USVString domain);
};
URL implements URLUtils;

[NoInterfaceObject,
Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface URLUtils {
stringifier attribute USVString href;

attribute USVString protocol;
attribute USVString host;
attribute USVString hostname;
attribute USVString port;
attribute USVString pathname;
attribute USVString search;
attribute URLSearchParams searchParams;
attribute USVString hash;
};

[NoInterfaceObject,
Exposed=(Window,Worker)]

};

Except where different objects implementing URLUtilsReadOnly are identical to objects implementing URLUtils.

Since all members are readonly and certain members from URLUtils are not exposed a number of potential optimizations is possible compared to objects implementing URLUtils. These are left as an exercise to the reader.

Specifications defining objects implementing URLUtils or URLUtilsReadOnly must define a get the base algorithm, which must return the appropriate base URL for the object.

Specifications defining objects implementing URLUtils may define update steps to make it possible for an underlying string (such as an attribute value) to be updated. The update steps are passed a string value for this purpose.

An object implementing URLUtils or URLUtilsReadOnly has an associated input (a string), query encoding (an encoding), query object (a URLSearchParams object or null), and a url (a URL or null). Unless stated otherwise, query encoding is utf-8 and query object is null. The others follow from the set the input algorithm.

The associated query encoding is a legacy concept only relevant for HTML. [[!HTML]]

Specifications defining objects implementing URLUtils or URLUtilsReadOnly must use the set the input algorithms to set input, url, and query object. To set the input given input and optionally a url, run these steps:

1. If url is given, set url to url and input to input.

2. Otherwise, run these substeps:

1. Set url to null.

2. If input is null, set input to the empty string.

3. Otherwise, run these subsubsteps:

1. Set input to input.

2. Let url be the result of running the URL parser on input with base URL being the result of running get the base and query encoding as encoding override.

3. If url is not failure, set url to url.

3. Let query be url's query if url is non-null, and the empty string otherwise.

4. If query object is null, set query object to a new URLSearchParams object using query, and then append the context object to query object's list of url objects.

5. Otherwise, set query object's list to the result of parsing query.

To run the pre-update steps for an object implementing URLUtils, optionally given a value, run these steps:

1. If value is not given, let value be the result of serializing the associated url.

2. Run the update steps with value.

### Constructors

The URL(url, base) constructor, when invoked, must run these steps:

1. Let parsedBase be the result of running the basic URL parser on base.

2. If parsedBase is failure, throw a TypeError exception.

3. Set parsedURL to the result of running the basic URL parser on url with parsedBase.

4. If parsedURL is failure, throw a TypeError exception.

5. Let result be a new URL object.

6. Let result's get the base return parsedBase.

7. Run result's set the input given the empty string and parsedURL.

A URL object's input is never exposed.

8. Return result.

To Basic URL parse a string into a URL without using a base URL, invoke the constructor with a single argument:

var input = "https://example.org/💩",
url = new URL(input)
url.pathname // "/%F0%9F%92%A9"

Alternatively you can use the base URL of a document through baseURI:

var input = "/💩",
url = new URL(input, document.baseURI)
url.href // "https://url.spec.whatwg.org/%F0%9F%92%A9"

### URL statics

The domainToASCII(domain) static method, when invoked, must run these steps:

1. Let asciiDomain be the result of invoking host with domain as input.

2. If asciiDomain matches ipv6addr or ipv4addr or failure, return the empty string.

3. Return asciiDomain.

The domainToUnicode(domain) static method, when invoked, must run these steps:

1. Let asciiDomain be the result of invoking domainToASCII with domain as input.

2. Return the result of running domain to Unicode on asciiDomain.

Add domainToUI() which follows the UA conventions for when to use the Unicode representation?

### URLUtils and URLUtilsReadOnly members

The URLUtils and URLUtilsReadOnly interfaces are not exposed on the global object. They are meant to augment other interfaces, such as URL.

The href attribute's getter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, return input.

2. Return the serialization of url.

The href attribute's setter must run these steps:

1. Let input be the given value.

2. If the context object is a URL object, run these substeps:

1. Let parsedURL be the result of running the basic URL parser on input with base URL being the result of running get the base.

2. If parsedURL is failure, throw a TypeError exception.

3. Run set the input given the empty string and parsedURL.

A URL object's input is never exposed.

3. Otherwise, run these substeps:

1. Run the set the input algorithm for input.

2. Run the pre-update steps with the input.

This means that if the href attribute is set to value that would cause the URL parser to return failure, that value is still passed through unchanged. This is one of those unfortunate legacy incidents.

var a = document.createElement("a"),
input = "https://test:test/" // invalid port makes the parser return failure
a.href = test
a.href === test // true

The origin attribute's getter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, return the empty string.

2. Return the Unicode serialization of url's origin. [[!HTML]]

It returns the Unicode rather than the ASCII serialization for compatibility with HTML's MessageEvent feature. [[!HTML]]

The protocol attribute's getter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, return ":".

2. Return scheme and ":" concatenated.

The protocol attribute's setter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, terminate these steps.

2. Invoke set-protocol on the input with url as url.
3. Run the pre-update steps.

The username attribute's getter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, return the empty string.

The username attribute's setter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, or its scheme data is set, terminate these steps.

2. Set url's username to the empty string.

3. For each code point in username, utf-8 percent encode it using the username encode set, and append the result to url's username.

4. Run the pre-update steps.

The password attribute's getter must run these steps:

1. If url is null or its password is null, return the empty string.

The resolution of bug 27516 may remove the ability to access passwords from scripts.

The password attribute's setter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, or its scheme data is set, terminate these steps.

2. If password is the empty string, set url's password to null.

3. Otherwise, run these substeps:

1. Set url's password to the empty string.

2. For each code point in password, utf-8 percent encode it using the password encode set, and append the result to url's password.

4. Run the pre-update steps.

The host attribute's getter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, return the empty string.

2. If port is the empty string, return host, serialized.

3. Return host, serialized, ":", and port concatenated.

The host attribute's setter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, or its scheme data is set, terminate these steps.

2. Invoke set-host on the input with url as url.
3. Run the pre-update steps.

The hostname attribute's getter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, return the empty string.

2. Return host, serialized.

The hostname attribute's setter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, or its scheme data is set, terminate these steps.

2. Invoke set-hostname on the input with url as url.
3. Run the pre-update steps.

The port attribute's getter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, return the empty string.

2. Return port.

The port attribute's setter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, its scheme data is set, or its scheme is "file", terminate these steps.

2. Otherwise, invoke set-port on the input with url as url.
3. Run the pre-update steps.

The pathname attribute's getter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, return the empty string.

2. If the scheme data is set, return scheme data.

3. Return "/" concatenated with the strings in path (including empty strings), separated from each other by "/".

The pathname attribute's setter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, or its scheme data is set, terminate these steps.

2. Empty path.

3. Invoke set-pathname on the input with url as url.
4. Run the pre-update steps.

The search attribute's getter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, or its query is either null or the empty string, return the empty string.

2. Return "?" concatenated with query.

The search attribute's setter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, terminate these steps.

2. If the given value is the empty string, set query to null, empty query object's list, run its update steps, and terminate these steps.

3. Let input be the given value with a single leading "?" removed, if any.

4. Set query to the empty string.

5. Invoke set-search on the input with url as url, and the associated query encoding as encoding override.
6. Set query object's list to the result of parsing input.

7. Run query object's update steps.

The update steps of query object are run to ensure all url objects remain synchronized.

The searchParams attribute's getter must return the query object.

The searchParams attribute's setter must run these steps:

1. Let object be the given value.

2. Remove the context object from query object's list of url objects.

3. Append the context object to object's list of url objects.

4. Set query object to object.

5. Set query to the serialization of the query object's list.

6. Run the pre-update steps.

The hash attribute's getter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, or its fragment is either null or the empty string, return the empty string.

2. Return "#" concatenated with fragment.

The hash attribute's setter must run these steps:

1. If url is null, or its scheme is "javascript", terminate these steps.

2. If the given value is the empty string, set fragment to null, run the pre-update steps, and terminate these steps.

3. Let input be the given value with a single leading "#" removed, if any.

4. Set fragment to the empty string.

5. Invoke set-hash on the input with url as url.
6. Run the pre-update steps.

### Interface URLSearchParams

[Constructor(optional (USVString or URLSearchParams) init = ""),
Exposed=(Window,Worker)]
interface URLSearchParams {
void append(USVString name, USVString value);
void delete(USVString name);
USVString? get(USVString name);
sequence<USVString> getAll(USVString name);
boolean has(USVString name);
void set(USVString name, USVString value);
iterable<USVString, USVString>;
stringifier;
};

A URLSearchParams object has an associated list of name-value pairs, which is initially empty.

A URLSearchParams object has an associated list of zero or more url objects, which is initially empty.

URLSearchParams objects always use utf-8 as encoding, despite the existence of concepts such as query encoding. This is to encourage developers to migrate towards utf-8, which they really ought to have done a long time ago now.

To create a new URLSearchParams object, optionally using init, run these steps:

1. Let query be a new URLSearchParams object.

2. If init is the empty string or null, return query.

3. If init is a string, set query's list to the result of parsing init.

4. If init is a URLSearchParams object, set query's list to a copy of init's list.

5. Return query.

A URLSearchParams object's update steps are to run these steps for each associated url object urlObject, in order:

1. Set urlObject's url's query to the serialization of URLSearchParams object's list.

2. Run urlObject's pre-update steps.

The URLSearchParams(init) constructor, when invoked, must return a new URLSearchParams object using init if given.

The append(name, value) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

1. Append a new name-value pair whose name is name and value is value, to list.

2. Run the update steps.

The delete(name) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

1. Remove all name-value pairs whose name is name from list.

2. Run the update steps.

The get(name) method, when invoked, must return the value of the first name-value pair whose name is name in list, and null if there is no such pair.

The getAll(name) method, when invoked, must return the values of all name-value pairs whose name is name, in list, in list order, and the empty sequence otherwise.

The set(name, value) method, when invoked, must run these steps:

1. If there are any name-value pairs whose name is name, in list, set the value of the first such name-value pair to value and remove the others.

2. Otherwise, append a new name-value pair whose name is name and value is value, to list.

3. Run the update steps.

The has(name) method, when invoked, must return true if there is a name-value pair whose name is name in list, and false otherwise.

The value pairs to iterate over are the list name-value pairs with the key being the name and the value the value.

The stringifier must return the serialization of the URLSearchParams object's list.

### URL APIs elsewhere

A standard that exposes URLs, should expose the URL as a string (by serializing an internal URL). A standard should not expose a URL using a URL object. URL objects are meant for URL manipulation. In IDL the USVString type should be used.

The higher-level notion here is that values are to be exposed as immutable data structures.

If a standard decides to use a variant of the name "URL" for a feature it defines, it should name such a feature "url" (i.e. lowercase and with an "l" at the end). Names such as "URL", "URI", and "IRI" should not be used. However, if the name is a compound, "URL" (i.e. uppercase) is preferred, e.g. "newURL" and "oldURL".

The {{EventSource}} and <application/x-www-form-urlencoded

The application/x-www-form-urlencoded format is a simple way to encode name-value pairs in a byte sequence where all bytes are in the 0x00 to 0x7F range.

While this description makes application/x-www-form-urlencoded sound dated — and really, it is — the format is in widespread use due to its prevalence of HTML forms. [[!HTML]]

### application/x-www-form-urlencoded parsing

The features provided by the application/x-www-form-urlencoded parser are mainly relevant for server-oriented implementations. A browser-based implementation only needs what the application/x-www-form-urlencoded string parser requires.

The application/x-www-form-urlencoded parser takes a byte sequence input, optionally with an encoding encoding override, optionally with a use _charset_ flag, and optionally with an isindex flag, and then runs these steps:

1. If encoding override is not given, set it to utf-8.

2. If encoding override is not utf-8 and input contains bytes whose value is greater than 0x7F, return failure.

This can only happen if input was not generated through the serializer or URLSearchParams.

3. Let sequences be the result of splitting input on &.

4. If the isindex flag is set and the first byte sequence in sequences does not contain a =, prepend = to the first byte sequence in sequences.

5. Let pairs be an empty list of name-value pairs where both name and value hold a byte sequence.

6. For each byte sequence bytes in sequences, run these substeps:

1. If bytes is the empty byte sequence, run these substeps for the next byte sequence.

2. If bytes contains a =, then let name be the bytes from the start of bytes up to but excluding its first =, and let value be the bytes, if any, after the first = up to the end of bytes. If = is the first byte, then name will be the empty byte sequence. If it is the last, then value will be the empty byte sequence.

3. Otherwise, let name have the value of bytes and let value be the empty byte sequence.

4. Replace any + in name and value with 0x20.

5. If use _charset_ flag is set, name is _charset_, run these substeps:

1. Let result be the result of getting an encoding for value, decoded.

2. If result is not failure, unset use _charset_ flag and set encoding override to result.

6. Add a pair consisting of name and value to pairs.

7. Let output be an empty list of name-value pairs where both name and value hold a string.

8. For each name-value pair in pairs, append a name-value pair to output where the new name and value appended to output are the result of running encoding override's decoder on the percent decoding of the name and value from pairs, respectively.

9. Return output.

### application/x-www-form-urlencoded serializing

The application/x-www-form-urlencoded byte serializer takes a byte sequence input and then runs these steps:

1. Let output be the empty string.

2. For each byte in input, depending on byte:

0x20

Append U+002B to output.

0x2A
0x2D
0x2E
0x30 to 0x39
0x41 to 0x5A
0x5F
0x61 to 0x7A

Append a code point whose value is byte to output.

Otherwise

Append byte, percent encoded, to output.

3. Return output.

The application/x-www-form-urlencoded serializer takes a list of name-value pairs pairs, optionally with an encoding encoding override, and then runs these steps:

1. If encoding override is not given, set it to utf-8.

2. Let output be the empty string.

3. For each pair in pairs, run these substeps:

1. Let outputPair be a copy of pair.

2. Replace outputPair's name and value with the result of running encode on them using encoding override, respectively.

3. Replace outputPair's name and value with their serialization.

4. If pair is not the first pair in pairs, append "&" to output.

5. Append outputPair's name, followed by "=", followed by outputPair's value to output.

4. Return output.

### Hooks

The application/x-www-form-urlencoded string parser takes a string input, utf-8 encodes it, and then returns the result of application/x-www-form-urlencoded parsing it.

## Terminology

Some terms used in this specification are defined in the DOM, Encoding, IDNA, and Web IDL Standards. [[!DOM]] [[!ENCODING]] [[!IDNA]] [[!WEBIDL]]

The ASCII digits are code points in the range U+0030 to U+0039.

The ASCII hex digits are ASCII digits or are code points in the range U+0041 to U+0046 or in the range U+0061 to U+0066.

The ASCII alpha are code points in the range U+0041 to U+005A or in the range U+0061 to U+007A.

The ASCII alphanumeric are ASCII digits or ASCII alpha.

A percent-encoded byte is "%", followed by two ASCII hex digits. Sequences of percent-encoded bytes, after conversion to bytes, should not cause a utf-8 decoder to run into any errors.

The simple encode set are all code points less than U+0020 (i.e. excluding U+0020) and all code points greater than U+007E.

The default encode set is the simple encode set and code points U+0020, '"', "#", "<", ">", "?", and "".

The password encode set is the default encode set and code points "/", "@", and "\".

The username encode set is the password encode set and code point ":".

The query encode set is defined to be code points that are less than U+0021, greater than U+007E, or one of U+0022, U+0023, U+003C, U+003E, and U+0060.

A host is a network address in the form of a domain, an IPv4 address, or an IPv6 address.

A domain identifies a realm within a network.

An IPv4 address is a 32-bit identifier and for the purposes of this specification represented as an ordered list of four 8-bit pieces. [[RFC791]]

An IPv6 address is a 128-bit identifier and for the purposes of this specification is either represented as an ordered list of eight 16-bit pieces, or as a list of seven 16-bit pieces followed by a single 32-bit piece. [[RFC4291]]

## Acknowledgments

There have been a lot of people that have helped make URLs more interoperable over the years and thereby furthered the goals of this standard. Likewise many people have helped making this standard what it is today.

With that, many thanks to Adam Barth, Albert Wiersch, Alexandre Morgaut, Arkadiusz Michalski, Behnam Esfahbod, Bobby Holley, Boris Zbarsky, Brandon Ross, Dan Appelquist, Daniel Bratell, David Håsäther, David Sheets, David Singer, Erik Arvidsson, Gavin Carothers, Geoff Richards, Glenn Maynard, Henri Sivonen, Ian Hickson, James Graham, James Manger, James Ross, Joshua Bell, Kevin Grandon, Larry Masinter, Mark Davis, Marcos Cáceres, Martin Dürst, Mathias Bynens, Michael Peick, Michael™ Smith, Michel Suignard, Peter Occil, Rodney Rehm, Roy Fielding, Santiago M. Mola, Simon Pieters, Simon Sapin, Tab Atkins, Tantek Çelik, Tim Berners-Lee, Vyacheslav Matva, and 成瀬ゆい (Yui Naruse) for being awesome!

This standard is written by Anne van Kesteren (Mozilla, annevk@annevk.nl) and Sam Ruby (IBM, rubys@intertwingly.net).

Per CC0, to the extent possible under law, the editors have waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this work.

{
"IDNA": {
"authors": [
"Mark Davis",
"Michel Suignard"
],
"href": "http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr46/",
"title": "Unicode IDNA Compatibility Processing",
"publisher": "Unicode Consortium"
},
"DOM": {
"authors": [
"Anne van Kesteren",
"Aryeh Gregor",
"Ms2ger"
],
"href": "https://dom.spec.whatwg.org/",
"title": "DOM",
"publisher": "WHATWG"
},
"ENCODING": {
"authors": [
"Anne van Kesteren"
],
"href": "https://encoding.spec.whatwg.org/",
"title": "Encoding",
"publisher": "WHATWG"
},
"FILEAPI": {
"authors": [
"Arun Ranganathan",
"Jonas Sicking"
],
"href": "http://dev.w3.org/2006/webapi/FileAPI/",
"title": "File API",
"publisher": "W3C"
},
"RFC791": {
"authors": [
"Jon Postel"
],
"href": "http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc791",
"title": "Internet Protocol",
"publisher": "IETF"
},
"WEBIDL": {
"authors": [
"Cameron McCormack",
"Jonas Sicking"
],
"href": "http://heycam.github.io/webidl/",
"title": "Web IDL",
"publisher": "W3C"
}
}

urlPrefix: http://dev.w3.org/2006/webapi/FileAPI/; type: dfn
text: blob
text: blob url store; url: #BlobURLStore
urlPrefix: https://dom.spec.whatwg.org/; type: dfn
text: concept-attribute-value
text: concept-document
text: context object
text: dom-node-baseuri
urlPrefix: https://encoding.spec.whatwg.org/; type: dfn
text: ascii whitespace
text: concept-encoding-get
text: decoder
text: encode
text: encoding
text: error
text: utf-8
text: utf-8 decode without bom
text: utf-8 encode
text: utf-8 decoder
urlPrefix: https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/
urlPrefix: comms.html; type: interface;
text: EventSource
text: HashChangeEvent
urlPrefix: browsers.html; type: dfn;
text: origin
text: unicode serialization of an origin
urlPrefix: infrastructure.html; type: dfn;
text: structured clone
urlPrefix: http://heycam.github.io/webidl/#dfn-; type: dfn;
text: throw
text: value pairs to iterate over
url: http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr46/#ToASCII; type: dfn; text: toascii
url: http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr46/#ToUnicode; type: dfn; text: tounicode
`